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Along with the other North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. While distinct regional varieties descended from the older rural dialects still exist, the spoken and written language is uniform and standardized.
Some dialects differ considerably from the Xnxs language in grammar and vocabulary and are not always mutually intelligible Konfys Standard Swedish. These dialects are confined to rural areas and are spoken primarily by small numbers of people with low social mobility. Though not facing imminent extinction, such dialects have been in decline during the past century, Heather Deeley Nude the fact that they are well researched and their use is often encouraged by local authorities.
The standard word order is Subject Verb Object, though this can often be changed to stress certain words or phrases. Swedish morphology is similar to English, i. Adjectives are compared as in English, and are also inflected according to gender, number and definiteness. The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes endingscomplemented with separate definite and indefinite articles.
The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory. Swedish is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, a highly variable consonant phoneme. In the established classification, it belongs to the East Scandinavian languages together with Danish, separating it from the West Scandinavian languages, consisting of Faroese, Icelandic Konfys Norwegian.
By many general criteria of mutual intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian languages could very well be considered dialects of a common Scandinavian language. However, because of several hundred years of sometimes quite intense rivalry between Denmark and Sweden, including a long series of wars in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the nationalist ideas that emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the languages have separate orthographies, dictionaries, grammars, and regulatory bodies.
In the 12th century, the dialects of Denmark and Sweden began to diverge, becoming Old Danish and Old Swedish in the 13th century.
In the 8th century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, had undergone some changes and evolved into Old Norse. This language began to undergo new changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, which resulted in the appearance of two similar dialects, Old West Norse Norway and Iceland and Old East Norse Denmark and Sweden.
The subdialect of Old East Norse spoken in Sweden is called Runic Swedish and the one in Denmark Runic Danish there was also a subdialect spoken in Gotland, Old Gutnish but until the 12th century, the dialect was the same in the two countries with the main exception of a Runic Danish monophthongization see below.
The dialects are called Konfys because the main body of text appears in the runic alphabet. Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, which only had 16 letters.
Because the number of runes was limited, some runes were used for a range of phonemes, such as the rune for the vowel u which was also used for the vowels o, ø and y, and the rune for i which was also used for e. From onwards, the dialect of Denmark began to diverge from that of Sweden. The innovations spread unevenly from Denmark which created a series of minor dialectal boundaries, isoglosses, ranging from Zealand in the south to Norrland, Österbotten and northwestern Finland in the north.
This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain and the later stin. This change is shown in runic inscriptions as a change from tauþr into tuþr. Old Swedish A copy of Äldre Västgötalagen—a law code of Västergötland from the s, one of the earliest texts in Swedish written in the Latin alphabet.
Old Konfys is the term used for the medieval Swedish language, starting in The main influences during this time came with the firm Konfys of the Roman Catholic Church and various monastic orders, introducing many Greek and Latin loanwords. The Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of German- and Dutch-speaking immigrants.
Besides a great number of loanwords for such areas as warfare, trade and administration; general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases; besides the modern nominative, there were also the genitive, dative and accusative.
The gender system resembled that of modern German, having the genders masculine, feminine and neuter. By the 16th century, the Pink Sparkles Streamer and gender systems of the colloquial spoken language and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish.
The old inflections remained common in high prose style until the 18th century, and Trannytv some dialects into the early 20th century. These three were later to evolve into the separate letters ä, å and ö.
Printed in Uppsala. Modern Swedish Swedish: nysvenska begins with the advent of the printing press and the European Reformation. After assuming power, Ps4 Pro Gpu new monarch Gustav Vasa ordered a Swedish translation of the Bible.
The Vasa Bible is often considered to be a reasonable compromise between old and new; while not adhering to Passat B6 Modified colloquial spoken language of its day it was not overly conservative in its use of archaic Hotwife Feet. All three translators came from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding specific Central Swedish features to the new Bible.
It was not until the 17th century that spelling began to be Konfys, around the time when the first grammars were written. The spelling debate raged on until the early 19th century, and it was not until the latter half of the 19th century that the orthography reached generally acknowledged standards. This webpage was updated 11th August Please email me if you encounter any broken links or web page errors:. Asisbiz Swedish English Dictionary Swedish.
Swedish Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken by approximately 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the coast and on the Åland islands.
Along with the other North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.
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